Gingko Biloba Side Effects
Gingko biloba leaves and seed have been used as a traditional herbal remedy for thousands of years. Gingko biloba leaf extracts have been used as dietary supplements having therapeutic benefits. Concern about potential side effects for health has been raised because of human exposure to gingko biloba and its carcinogenic activities in rodents (Belwal et al., 2019).
Gingko biloba has been reported to have a large number of side effects that can cause harm to the human body. Following are the most prevalent side effects of gingko biloba.
An uncontrolled or over dosage of Gingko biloba can cause excessive bleeding disorder. This herb has been reported to have anticoagulant properties that slow down the clotting process and lead to excessive blood loss. If you are suffering from bleeding disorders, you should avoid gingko biloba.
Altered blood glucose level
Ginkgo biloba adversely affect the pancreas and interfere with insulin production in the body. Altered insulin production can cause the hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic effects in the body, which in turns lead to diabetes.
Gingko biloba can cause the severe hemolytic anemia in people who have a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. A human having the G6PD enzyme deficiency should avoid using gingko biloba.
Gingko biloba has potentially reduced the fertility in humans. This herb has also shown severe side effects in pregnant and breasting feeding women. It might cause premature delivery or excessive bleeding (Chan et al., 2007).
Over dosage of gingko biloba can cause various gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea, stomachache, Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps or discomfort and irritation.
Severe Allergic reactions
An uncontrolled or excessive usage of gingko biloba can cause adverse allergic reactions. The symptoms of allergic reactions appear in human include breathing disorder, inflammation, skin rashes, redness and swelling.
Higher consumption of this herb can cause hypotension or hypertension side effects in the body by affecting the blood pressure. It can also cause increased heartbeat, cardiac arrest and heart stroke.
Consumption of gingko biloba can cause the uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain the lead to convulsions, cognitive impairment, unconsciousness, dementia, impaired behavior and memory-related side effects (Tan et al., 2017; Patel et al., 2015).
Gingko biloba has been reported to have carcinogenic activity in the human body. Higher dosage of this herb increases the risk of hepatic and thyroid cancer (Mei et al., 2017).
Depression, dizziness and insomnia
Depression and dizziness are considered to be the most common side effect of gingko biloba. The long term exposure to this herb drowsiness, impaired sensations and behavioral changes. The dietary supplements of gingko biloba can also cause weakness, restlessness and sleeping disorders lead to insomnia.
These are the few potential gingko biloba side effects heavily dependent on dosage level and human health status. There should be strict control over the dosage of this herb to avoid serious side effects. In certain health disorders, this herb must be strictly prohibited or consumed in recommended quantities prescribed by your physician.
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Belwal, T., Giri, L., Bahukhandi, A., Tariq, M., Kewlani, P., Bhatt, I. D. and Rawal, R. S. (2019). Ginkgo biloba. In Nonvitamin and Nonmineral Nutritional Supplements 241-250.
Chan, P. C., Xia, Q. and Fu, P. P. (2007). Ginkgo biloba leave extract: biological, medicinal, and toxicological effects. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 25:211-244.
Mei, N., Guo, X., Ren, Z., Kobayashi, D., Wada, K. and Guo, L. (2017). Review of Ginkgo biloba-induced toxicity, from experimental studies to human case reports. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 35(1):1-28.
Patel, S. and Lalwani, K. (2015). The scary side of Ginkgo biloba is no match for an anesthesia superstar: Seizures. In A Case Approach to Perioperative Drug-Drug Interactions 925-927.
Tan, M. S., Yu, J. T., Tan, C. C., Wang, H. F., Meng, X. F., Wang, C. and Tan, L. (2015). Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 43(2):589-603.